Sunday, April 03, 2005


City, seat (1852) of Orange county, southeastern Texas, U.S. It lies at the Louisiana state line. Orange is a deepwater port on the Sabine River, which has been canalized to connect with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. It is linked to Beaumont and Port Arthur by the tall Rainbow Bridge (1938), built to allow passage of the tallest ship of its time; with Beaumont and Port Arthur, Orange forms

Biblical Literature, Judges: background and purpose

The Book of Judges, the third of the series of five books that reflect the theological viewpoint of the Deuteronomic historian, covers the history of the Israelite tribes from the death of Joshua to the rise of the monarchy, a period comprising nearly 200 years (c. 1200–c. 1020 BCE). Though the internal chronology of Judges points to a period of about 400 years, the editor may have arbitrarily


Swiss economic development has been affected by specific physical and cultural geographic factors. In the first instance, there was a paucity of raw materials; precipitation and soil quality to a large extent determined the type and size of cultivation; urban and industrial expansion encroached on the limited amount of cultivable land; a central location, situated

Saturday, April 02, 2005

Llano Estacado

Also called  Staked Plains,   portion of the High Plains of the United States, along the Texas–New Mexico border. It covers an area of about 30,000 square miles (78,000 square km) and is bounded by the Canadian River valley (north), the “break of the plains” (east), the Edwards Plateau (south), and the Mescalero Ridge overlooking the Pecos River (west). Strikingly level in appearance and averaging 3,000–4,000 feet (900–1,200 m) above sea level, the

Both, Jan

Both first studied with his father, Dirck Both, a glass painter, and then with Abraham Bloemaert. From 1638 to 1641 he lived in Rome with his brother Andries; in the latter year he returned to Utrecht, where he became a prominent

Friday, April 01, 2005


Plural  strambotti  one of the oldest Italian verse forms, composed of a single stanza of either six or eight hendecasyllabic (11-syllable) lines. Strambotti were particularly popular in Renaissance Sicily and Tuscany, and the origin of the form in either region is still uncertain. Variations of the eight-line strambotto include the Sicilian octave (ottava siciliana), with the rhyme scheme

Thursday, March 31, 2005

Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand

Gandhi was the youngest child of his father's fourth wife. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, who was the dewan (chief

Frederick, Pauline

After receiving her A.M. degree in international law from American University, Washington, D.C., Frederick worked as a free-lance reporter on so-called women's issues. She used this experience to gain a foothold in journalism, and after the end of World War II she reported on

Wednesday, March 30, 2005


Legal invalidation of a marriage. Annulment announces the invalidity of a marriage that was void from its inception. It is to be distinguished from dissolution, which ends a valid marriage for special reasons—e.g., insanity of one partner after marrying. The annulment decree attempts to leave the parties in statu quo ante (as they were before the marriage), unless doing

Tuesday, March 29, 2005

Biblical Literature, II Enoch

Similar in content is II Enoch, or The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, which is preserved only in an Old Slavonic translation. The oldest text does not contain any Christian additions nor any passage from which it could be concluded that the book was written in Greek. Thus, the book could have been written originally in Hebrew or Aramaic, probably in the 1st century CE. The hero

Guadalupian Stage

In Guadalupian time the conditions


Pai-ch'eng was first established as a county seat, called Ching-an, in 1904; it remained a place of

Sunday, March 27, 2005

Cronjé, Pieter Arnoldus

Cronjé was born in the Cape Colony but was taken in early life to the Transvaal, during the Great Trek. In the Transvaal, in November 1880, he began a rebellion against British rule, leading resistance to the distraint